Patient and Doctor Translation Tool



Referring to a health effect, usually of rapid onset, brief, not prolonged; sometimes loosely used to mean severe.


Medication adherence usually refers to whether patients take their medications as prescribed (eg, twice daily), as well as whether they continue to take a prescribed medication.


Having no signs or symptoms of disease.


A heart specialist, usually a physician concerned with cardiac diagnosis and medical treatment, rather than a heart surgeon.


Referring to a health-related state, lasting a long time.


The process of complying (following) with a regimen of treatment.


Detection is the act of noticing or discovering something, eg, doing a CT scan to see what’s happening beneath the skin and tissues.


The process of identifying a disease, condition, or injury from its signs and symptoms. A health history, physical exam, and tests, such as blood tests, imaging tests, and biopsies, may be used to help make a diagnosis.

Diagnostic test

A type of test used to help diagnose a disease or condition. Also called diagnostic procedure.

Diet plan

A diet plan is tailored to an individual's health status, weight, and lifestyle, along with their weight-loss and health goals.

Emergency Medicine

Emergency Medicine is the medical specialty dedicated to the diagnosis and treatment of unforeseen illness or injury.


An episode is a single noteworthy happening in the course of a longer series of events, such as one critical period of several during a prolonged illness.

Heart-healthy living

Heart-healthy living involves understanding your risk, making choices, and taking steps to reduce your chances of getting or worsening heart disease. These could be anything from changing your exercise routine to eating healthier.

Hereditary condition

A hereditary disease or quality that is passed from a parent to a child in their genes. These are conditions you are born with and can include everything from your hair color to health disorders.


A hospitalist is a clinician whose primary professional focus is the general medical care of hospitalized patients. Hospitalists engage in clinical care, teaching, research, and enhancing the performance of hospitals and healthcare systems.

Intensive Care Unit (ICU)

A unit in a hospital providing intensive care for critically ill or injured patients that is staffed by specially trained medical personnel and has equipment that allows for continuous monitoring and life support.

Nurse Practitioner

A nurse practitioner (NP) is a nurse with a graduate degree in advanced practice nursing. This type of provider may also be referred to as an ARNP (Advanced Registered Nurse Practitioner) or APRN (Advanced Practice Registered Nurse).


The initial existence or symptoms of a disease.

Physician Assistant (PA)

Physician Assistants are medical professionals who diagnose illness, develop and manage treatment plans, prescribe medications, and often serve as a patient’s principal healthcare provider.


The study of the physical and biological abnormalities occurring within the body as a result of a disease.

Primary Care Physician

A primary care physician is a specialist in Family Medicine, Internal Medicine, or Pediatrics who provides care to the patient at the point of first contact, and takes continuing responsibility for providing the patient's comprehensive care. This care may include chronic, preventive, and acute care in both inpatient and outpatient settings.


A symptom or group of symptoms evident or disclosed by a patient upon physical examination.


The likely outcome or course of a disease; the chance of recovery or recurrence.

Side effect

A secondary and usually adverse effect (as of a drug) occurring at normal dosage related to the pharmacological properties of the medication.


A physical or mental problem that a person experiences that may indicate a disease or condition. Some symptoms may not be seen and may not show up on medical tests. Some examples of symptoms are headache, fatigue, nausea, and pain.


Having to do with symptoms, which are signs of a condition or disease.


The action or way of treating a patient or a condition medically or surgically. Also, management and care to prevent, cure, or slow progression of a medical condition.

Treatment plan

A detailed plan with information about a patient’s disease, the goal of treatment, the treatment options for the disease and possible side effects, and the expected length of treatment. A treatment plan may also include information about how much the treatment is likely to cost and about regular follow-up care after treatment ends.


A substance, insect, object, or agent that initiates or stimulates an action.

Vascular Surgeon

Vascular surgeons are specialists who are highly trained to treat diseases of the vascular system. A vascular surgeon makes sure patients with vascular health issues know and understand all their options. In short, vascular surgeons can do surgery, but they see and treat many patients who don’t require surgery. Many vascular problems can be treated with medication or exercise.

Warning signs

A warning sign is something which shows that something else will happen.



A substance that is used to prevent and treat blood clots in blood vessels and the heart. Also called blood thinner. XARELTO® is an anticoagulant.


A remedy to counteract the effects of a medication.


A drug that reduces pain, fever, inflammation, and blood clotting. Aspirin belongs to the family of drugs called nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents.

Baby aspirin

Another name for low-dose aspirin (75 mg to 100 mg).

Beta blocker

Beta blockers, also known as beta-adrenergic blocking agents, are medications that reduce your blood pressure. Beta blockers work by blocking the effects of the hormone epinephrine, also known as adrenaline. Beta blockers cause your heart to beat more slowly and with less force, which lowers blood pressure.

Bleed risk

A risk for developing bleeding in the body.

Blood clot

Blood clots are clumps that occur when blood hardens from a liquid to a solid. A blood clot that forms inside one of your veins or arteries is called a thrombus. A thrombus may also form in your heart. A thrombus that breaks loose and travels from one location in the body to another is called an embolus.

Blood thinner

A substance that is used to prevent and treat blood clots in blood vessels and the heart. Also called anticoagulant.

Blood thinning medication

A blood thinning medication is a drug used to inhibit blood clotting. Examples of blood thinning medications are XARELTO® (prescription) and aspirin (over the counter).


A systematic arrangement into classes or groups based on perceived common characteristics; a means of giving order to a group of disconnected facts. For example, XARELTO® is in a class of medications called Factor Xa inhibitors because it works by decreasing the clotting ability of the blood.


A brand name for the drug warfarin.

Dietary restrictions

A reduction of particular or total nutrient intake without causing malnutrition.

Dosing change

A change in how much medication you may be taking.

Drug Class

A group of drugs that share common properties, including a similar mechanism of action, chemical structure, or approved use.


Official nonbrand names by which medicines are known. Generic names usually refer to the chemical name of the drug. XARELTO® is the brand name for the generic, rivaroxaban.


Half-life in the context of medical science typically refers to the elimination half-life. The definition of elimination half-life is the length of time required for the concentration of a particular substance (typically a drug) to decrease to half of its starting dose in the body.

Heart attack

A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that brings oxygen to the heart muscle is severely reduced or cut off completely.


A drug used to treat fever, swelling, pain, and redness by preventing the body from making a substance that causes inflammation. It is a type of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID).


In medicine, a sign, symptom, or medical condition that leads to the recommendation of a treatment, test, or procedure is referred to as an indication.


Drug interactions may make your drug less effective, cause unexpected side effects, or increase the action of a particular drug.

Low-dose aspirin

A low-dose (75 mg to 100 mg) version of aspirin, a drug that reduces pain, fever, inflammation, and blood clotting. Aspirin belongs to the family of drugs called nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents.

Major bleed

Bleeding that is or can be life-threatening. An example of a major bleed would be a stroke.

Mechanism of action (MOA)

In medicine, a term used to describe how a drug or other substance produces an effect in the body. For example, a drug’s MOA could be how it affects a specific target in a cell, such as an enzyme, or a cell function, such as cell growth. Knowing the MOA of a drug may help provide information about the safety of the drug and how it affects the body. It may also help identify the right dose of a drug and which patients are most likely to respond to treatment.

Minor bleed

Bleeding that is not life-threatening. An example of a minor bleed would be a bruise.

Prescribing Information (PI)

A detailed description of a drug's uses, dosage range, side effects, drug-drug interactions, and contraindications that is available to physicians and is often included in pharmaceutical packaging instructions.


To become well and healthy again.

Recovery time

The amount of time it takes to become well and healthy again.

Reversal agent

A reversal agent is any drug used to reverse the effects of anesthetics, narcotics, or potentially toxic agents.


The generic name for XARELTO®.


An attribute of healthcare systems that minimizes the incidence (how often something happens) and impact of adverse (harmful) events, and maximizes recovery from such events.


Stroke is a disease that affects the arteries leading to and within the brain. It occurs when a blood vessel that carries oxygen and nutrients to the brain is either blocked by a clot or bursts (or ruptures). When that happens, part of the brain cannot get the blood (and oxygen) it needs, and brain cells die.

Thrombolytic therapy

Thrombolytic therapy is the use of drugs to break up or dissolve blood clots, which are the main cause of both heart attacks and stroke.

Vitamin K

Vitamin K helps your body by making proteins for healthy bones and tissues. It also makes proteins for blood clotting. If you don't have enough vitamin K, you may bleed too much.


A drug that prevents blood from clotting. It belongs to the family of drugs called anticoagulants (blood thinners).

Coverage and Savings

Assistance program

A benefit program that can offer help in financial, emotional, and other personal ways.


The healthcare items or services covered under a health insurance plan. Covered benefits and excluded services are defined in the health insurance plan's coverage documents. In Medicaid or CHIP, covered benefits and excluded services are defined in state program rules.


A fixed amount (for example, $15) you pay for a covered healthcare service, usually when you receive the service. The amount can vary by the type of covered healthcare service.

Co-pay assistance

A program that may help patients with their co-pay.

Co-pay card

Also referred to as a savings card. Eligible commercial patients can pay $10 per fill for XARELTO®, up to a 90-day fill. Program benefit limits and program requirements apply. Learn more about the 2021 Janssen CarePath Savings Program for XARELTO®.


Your share of the costs of a covered healthcare service, calculated as a percentage (for example, 20%) of the allowed amount for the service. You generally pay coinsurance plus any deductibles you owe.


The amount you could owe during a coverage period (usually one year) for covered healthcare services before your plan begins to pay. An overall deductible applies to all or almost all covered items and services.

Financial assistance

If patients don't have insurance or need help with costs that aren't covered, financial assistance might be available to help. Certain government programs and nonprofit organizations can help. Patients can also discuss concerns about paying their medical bills with their healthcare provider, social worker, or the business office of their clinic or hospital.

List Price

The basic price of an item as published in a catalog, price list, or advertisement before any discounts are taken. Learn more about how to save on the list price for XARELTO®.


A joint federal and state program, separate from Medicare, that helps pay medical costs for people with low incomes, limited assets, and disabilities.


A federal health insurance program for people aged 65 years and older, and/or people with certain disabilities.

Medicare Part D

Medicare Prescription Drug Coverage, which helps you pay for prescription drugs that are considered medically necessary; these drugs are usually self-administered (taken outside of the HCP office).

Out-of-pocket costs

Your expenses for medical care that aren't reimbursed by insurance. Out-of-pocket costs include deductibles, coinsurance, and co-payments for covered services plus all costs for services that aren't covered.

Prescription assistance

A benefit program that can offer help paying for prescription medication.

Savings program

A program where patients can sign up to save money on their prescription medication. Learn more about the savings program for XARELTO®.

Support program

A program in which patients can sign up to get emotional support or resources that can help them. Learn more about support program for XARELTO®

Trial card

A card that allows a patient to try out a medication. There may be terms and conditions to using this.


A piece of paper or electronic document that entitles the holder to a discount, or that may be exchanged for goods or services.

XARELTO® Support

Janssen CarePath ( Support for patients and their caregivers

Once you and your doctor have decided that XARELTO® is right for you, Janssen CarePath will help you find the resources you may need to get started and stay on track. We will give you information on your insurance coverage, potential out-of-pocket costs, and treatment support, and identify options that may help make your treatment more affordable. Call a Janssen CarePath Care Coordinator today at 888-XARELTO (888-927-3586), Monday–Friday, 8:00 AM–8:00 PM ET, create a Janssen CarePath Patient Account at or visit

Janssen Select

Janssen Select is a program for patients facing affordability challenges caused by gaps in drug insurance coverage whether they have commercial or government-funded insurance. Terms expire at the end of each calendar year and may change. See program requirements at Visit to learn more and register.

The Johnson & Johnson Patient Assistance Foundation, Inc. (JJPAF)

The Johnson & Johnson Patient Assistance Foundation, Inc. (JJPAF) is an independent, nonprofit organization that is committed to helping eligible patients without insurance coverage receive prescription products donated by Johnson & Johnson operating companies. To see if you might qualify for assistance, please contact a JJPAF program specialist at 800‐652‐6227 (Monday–Friday, 8:00 AM–8:00 PM ET) or visit the foundation website at

Patient starter kit

A website and physical kit that allows XARELTO® patients to access the information they need in one convenient location. To visit our digital patient starter kit, visit

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